#93 Work & Turn

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#93 Work & Turn
Click to view full-size or download hi-rez image for gallery-quality printing and framing.
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Find printing tips & framing ideas here.

“Work & Turn” is a term used by printers to print both sides of a sheet of paper with just one plate & one press set-up.

Find a complete list of printing terms at wcbs4printing.com. For more information about this outstanding full-service printer, see the “chaz sez” column  below.

What is “work & turn”?

In the case of a two-sided flyer, the work & turn job’s plate & paper will be large enough to contain two full flyers. The plate is set up to print both the front & back images of the flyer in just one pass. The printed work & turn sheet will look like the AmperArt Work & Turn art, above, containing two full flyers where the front side is adjacent to the back side.*

Then then the paper is flipped end-for-end (after the ink is dry) so the printed side is down and the blank side is up, & then printed again with the same plate. In this way, the front of each flyer will contain the opposite image on the back. (It’s important to flip the paper the right way, or each flyer could contain two “front” sides or two “back” sides. Yes, I’ve made that mistake.)

The sheets are then cut apart in the center to make two finished items, like this—each work & turn flyer will have a front & a back side:

front & back of a work & turn job

Although one plate could be used for a 1-color work & turn job, several plates would be required for full-color printing such as shown in the AmperArt Work & Turn artwork. Still, only one press set-up is required with only one set of plates, not a separate set for front & back. The paper is passed through, flipped, & passed through again.

*Technical note: The Amperart Work & Turn image would actually be printed full-bleed (not shown in the AmperArt Work & Turn piece), then trimmed on all four sides as well as in half. But full bleed is another discussion. “Bleed,” “work & turn,” and other printing jargon is explained in a comprehensive glossary page at wcbs4printing.com. For more information about this outstanding printer, keep reading…

chaz sez ...

Here’s a real coincidence: I searched Google for “work & turn” to find a simple definition which I could modify for my readers. The page I was lead to is wcbs4printing.com printing terms, an excellent list of printing terms provided by a full-service printer in Palm Desert—just a few towns over from me! Of the thousands of printers all over the world, I find this to be quite a coincidence…like an invitation for a short drive to take in the wonderful smell of ink & hear the roar of the presses.

The full list of services & outstanding testimonials have enticed me to ask wcbs4printing.com for a quote on an upcoming print job. And when a client needs custom-printed bags, badge holders, bookmarks, luggage straps & tags, magnets, mugs, name badges, passport wallets, pens or post-it notes…
their specialty division, wcbs4LogoProducts.com, handles all those items.

Small world. Or as the TV soap goes, As the World Work & Turns.

Production notes for #93 Work & Turn:
Original size: 20×30 inches
Program: Adobe Illustrator
Fonts: Rockwell, Bodoni, DIN Schrift
Ampersand: DIN Schrift, modified

Related article in the Printing & Publishing series:
#63 Upper & Lowercase

For professional graphic design, please visit Desimone Design.

Desimone? Damn good!

#63 Upper & Lowercase (do you know which “case” this refers to?)

Download hi-rez image to print & frame.


#63 Upper & Lowercase
Click to view full-size or download hi-rez image for gallery-quality printing and framing.
This is a high-resolution pdf & may take a few minutes to download.
Find printing tips & framing ideas here.

UPPER & lowercase, as in cap­i­tal and “small” let­ters, are called upper & lowercase for a reason. It’s not because they are taller & shorter.

Upper & Lowercase job cases.The terms “upper” & “lowercase” orig­i­nated in the early days of hand-​​set type where each char­ac­ter was cast on a sep­a­rate piece of metal and stored in shal­low draw­ers known as job cases. Fre­quently there were two cases (draw­ers) for each font, one placed on top of the other while com­posit­ing type. The upper case con­tained the majus­cules. The lower case con­tained the minuscules (these are the proper terms, though not heard much anymore).

This illus­tra­tion has the cases reversed — low­er­case is on top — to clearly show the var­i­ous sizes of indi­vid­ual com­part­ments needed to accom­mo­date the quan­tity of each low­er­case let­ter used for the aver­age com­po­si­tion. (The upper­case com­part­ments are all the same size.) There are more e‘s used in the Eng­lish lan­guage than any other let­ter, hence e is stored in the largest section.

Our friend the amper­sand is stored in the upper case (bot­tom in this illus­tra­tion), near the lower right cor­ner: bot­tom row & sec­ond box in—see it?

Proofreaders’ marks

The red lines and dots in AmperArt #63 Upper & Lowercase are proofreaders’ marks. Although today’s manuscripts are proofread and edited with highlights, tags and “sticky tag” callouts—or just edited directly in the word processing or page layout program—there’s nothing quite like proofing a hard copy printed page—you know, paper, not pixels. That’s usually where the last elusive typo will be discovered. Proofing hard copy is done best with a red pen and a set of good old-fashioned proofreaders’ marks. Here’s a rather complete list:

Upper & Lowercase & many more proofreaders' symbols.


Upper & LowercaseCan you figure out what the red marks in #63 Upper & Lowercase mean?
Note: the design shows the final result after the revisions were carried out.
1. Close up (pull letters tighter together).
2. Make this a capital (upper case) letter.
3. “Stet”—let stand, ignore changes, revert to original.
4. Change to lowercase.

Online reference from Edit Fast, a service for writers: online proofreaders’ marks chart.

Triva: See where it says “insert lead” and ”take out lead”? Most writers and designers today know that “leading” is the term for space between lines of type. But why is it called “leading”? When type was set by hand (or even by machine, but still cast line-by-line) space was increased between the lines by inserting a flat strip of lead which varied from 1/4 point in thickness up to 12 points or more. Beyond stacking several strips of lead for a very large blank space, blocks of wood were frequently used. These strips really were made of lead, which is why many compositors ended up with cancer.

Upper & Lowercase & all sorts of other edits!

Uh-oh. The red pen.

This is how messy a page can get if an amateur writer is being redlined by a professional editor. This photo shows a galley proof, so some of the proofreader’s marks might also indicate typesetter’s errors (typos) and artistic adjustments.

This image was “borrowed” from a wonderfully entertaining story on how copy editing used to be. Read it here. Written by a London editor, the term you’ll be reading is “sub-editing” or “subbing,” not copy editing as we call it in the States. Fiona Cullinan’s memoirs of the days of when copy & paste meant razor blades and rubber cement are pure joy. Brings me back to the days of real galley proofs & the “reproduction computer.” Thanks, Fiona.

Image © Periodical Training Council training material.


Commas, dashes, upper & lowercase, syntax, spelling, &c.

The Frugal Editor

If you’re a writer on a budget—or if you’re just a compulsive DIYer—you can proof and edit, yourself, with a fantastic, thorough guide on self-editing, The Frugal Editor, by Carolyn Howard Johnson. I highly recommend this valuable & frugal investment; see a few pages on amazon.com.

The Frugal Book Promoter

Once you edit your book, you might want to sell it—right? Carolyn’s flagship book in the Frugal series is The Frugal Book Promoter. See it here. This book is the most comprehensive guide on self-promoting (or with inexpensive help of others) I’ve ever read. Just the one statement “start promoting your book now, even if it’s not published yet, even if it’s not written yet!” is worth the price.

Yes, I designed the covers (you’ll see that if you visit the amazon links) but I was passionate about the project because both books are incredibly thorough & helpful, written by a brilliant & delightful author & publisher.


 listen up!Print shop was my favorite class in junior & senior high. I printed my own business cards, greeting cards, & flyers (which I kept preciously safe in a storage facility for over 50 years, intending to share my childhood creations with you in an article like this…until they were all auctioned off Feb. 8, 2014 and are now in a trash heap somewhere along with thousands of other bits & pieces of my life, career, artwork—& my soul). My desk is a mess right now—pens, markers, papers & books are everywhere* & I guess I’ve had the same bad habit of not putting things away since my early years. You see, the type that I set my flyers & such with in print shop should have been called not upper case & lowercase, but “floor case.” Because I pied (printers’ term for spilled) more type than I set, and never went back to pick it up off the floor. I just pulled more type out of the cases. My poor print shop instructor!

*But all my Crayolas are in the box where they belong.

Production notes for #63 Upper & Lowercase:
Original size: 20×30 inches
Program: InDesign
Fonts: Garamond, Franklin
Ampersand: Franklin
Credits for #63 Upper & Lowercase:
Job cases: Unknown
Proofreaders’ marks: Pearson Higher Education (pearsonhighered.com)
Mark-up page: Fiona Cullinan, designersinsights.com © Periodical Training Council training material.
Cover of The Frugal Editor: I designed it—see the book here.

Related article in the Printing & Publishing series:
#93 Work & Turn

For professional graphic design, please visit Desimone Design.

Desimone? Damn good!

#41 Whiter & Brighter

This month’s piece for the Advertising Slogans series features a term that described the sheets & shirts & underwear hanging on the clothesline back in 1950 after the joyful washday experience of a happy housewife (with matching daughter) & her beloved box of Rinso Giant Size Laundry Detergent.

Today you don’t see that term used for detergent much anymore, but rather for the “whiter & brighter” smile of celebrities, professionals, students…& happy housewives.

But there’s one more meaning & it’s just for pixel pushers like me. Anything over 92 is considered “whiter & brighter” in a sheet of paper to print a favorite AmperArt edition on.

#21 New & Improved, one of my favorite AmperArt pieces.
First in the Advertising Slogans series.

How does detergent, fabric & paper get “brighter than bright”? Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) have been used in many industries, notably the makers of laundry detergent since the early 1960s. The blue crystals in laundry detergent are FWAs. The FWAs work by absorbing ultraviolet light, from the sun or fluorescent bulbs, & then re-emitting it as a bluish light to make colored clothes appear brighter & white ones whiter.

Paper mills have been using FWAs since the 1970s, when paper companies found that they could achieve much higher brightness levels than with bleach alone.

In 1992, the world consumption of FWAs was estimated at 60,000 tons, with the detergent industry consuming 50%, the paper industry 33% & the textile industry 17%.*

On the other hand, teeth whitening is achieved primarily with bleaching agents such as hydrogen peroxide & scrubbing with baking soda — not by spraying your teeth with fluorescent paint.

*Source: Perry J. Greenbaum, a freelance business & technology writer, can be reached at pjgreenbaum@gmail.com. Excerpted from Pulp & Paper Magazine

Vintage ads: vintageadsandstuff.com

Production notes:
Original size: 20×30 inches
Programs: Illustrator, Photoshop
Fonts: Franklin Gothic Extra Condensed, Brush Script (ampersand)

This edition would have been released a week ago, except I stumbled upon a treasure trove of old magazine ads that are viewable online but also available for purchase. I couldn’t pull my eyes away from these incredible examples of advertising art the way it was done way before Photoshop — ruling pens that leaked, T squares that weren’t square, rubber cement that didn’t stick too well and always kept me in suspense whether a piece of type would fall off the board before it went to press.

These vintage ads are not reproductions; they’re actual printed ads that are clipped from those wonderfully oversaturated color glossy magazines of the past century.

A sad note on the website is told best by the curator’s own words: ” About four or five months ago I suffered a stroke which has caused me to forget much of what I am supposed to do to list ads. I am not able to add scanned images or other things to my site, I just don’t remember how.” I offered to assist and I hope he takes me up on it; his site has given me so much joy.

If you want to see these priceless old ads (some are priceless simply because the original ads were already sold but the digital images are still there) and maybe even own an original, visit his site, vintageadsandsuch.com

If nothing else, please pray for the full recovery of this person so he can once again enjoy adding images to his website.